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To judge by the portraits of the popes, it was with Clement VII (1523) that a distinct beard began to be worn, and many among his successors, for example Paul III, allowed the beard to grow to considerable length. Charles Borromeo attempted to check the spread of the new fashion, and in 1576 he addressed to his clergy a pastoral "De barbâ radendâ" exhorting them to observe the canons.Still, though the length of clerical beards decreased during the seventeenth century, it was not until its close that the example of the French court and the influence of Cardinal Orsini, Archbishop of Beneventum, contributed to bring about a return to the earlier usage.
As already noted, in Eastern lands a smooth face carries with it the suggestion of effeminacy.Jerome seems to censure the practice of wearing long beards, but no very definite conclusion can be drawn from his allusions or from those of his contemporary, St. The positive legislation on the subject for clerics appears to be Canon 44 of the so-called Fourth of Carthage, which in reality represents the synodal decrees of some council in Southern Gaul in the time of St. Still this canon, which was widely quoted and is included in the "Corpus juris" had great influence in creating a precedent.(See for example the "Penitential" of Halitgar and the so-called "Excerptions" attributed to Egbert of York.) So far as concerns England in particular it was certainly regarded throughout the Middle Ages as uncanonical to allow the beard to grow.Peter's and ours." A similar practice obtained generally throughout the West and it was one of the great subjects of reproach on the part of the Greek Church, from the time of Photius onwards, that the Roman clergy systematically cut off their beards.But as Ratramnus of Corbie protested, it was foolish to make an outcry about a matter which concerned salvation so little as this barbæ detonsio aut conservatio.A cleric was known as a shorn man ( bescoren man , Laws of Wihtred, A. 96), and if it should seem that this might refer to the tonsure, we have a law of King Alfred : "If a man shave off another's beard let him make amends with twenty shillings.
If he bind him first and then shave him like a priest ( hine to preoste bescire ) let him make amends with sixty shillings." And under Edgar we find the canon: "Let no man in holy orders conceal his tonsure, nor let himself be misshaven nor keep his beard for any time, if he will have God's blessing and St.
Her father remarried to Emma Bouvier in 1860 and together they had another daughter in 1863, Louisa Drexel.
The girls received a wonderful education from private tutors and traveled throughout the United States and Europe.
The legislation requiring the beard to be shaved seems to have remained in force throughout the Middle Ages .
Thus an ordinance of the Council of Toulouse, in 1119, threatened with excommunication the clerics who "like a layman allowed hair and beard to grow", and Pope Alexander III ordained that clerics who nourished their hair and beard were to be shorn by their archdeacon, by force if necessary. Durandus, finding mystical reasons for everything, according to his wont, tells us that "length of hair is symbolical of the multitude of sins.
Katharine Drexel is the second American-born saint to be canonized by the Catholic Church.