Dating kaolin pipe stem holes
Other published references of general and specific interest were Early American Ironware (Kauffman 1966), The Age 0f Firearms (Held 1957), A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (Noel Hume 1969), and Classification System for Glass Beads (Kidd and Kidd 1970).
And in contrast to South's original format in which kaolin pipe remnants appear as a separate category, pipe bowls and stems from Tomotley are also included in the "Personal" functional artifact category.An example of artifacts representing this functional group is illustrated in Figures II.1 and II.2.The "construction tool" class included one axe (Feature 383), one hatchet (Feature 415), two planing blades (Feature 383), and three wedge/chisel implements (surface); all made of iron.The Activities Group includes a broad range of objects and is represented in the Tomotley artifact assemblage by such items as construction tools, farm tools, stable related implements (or tack), miscellaneous tools, and general metal resources.Many of these items, specifically tools and tack, were probably obtained from the spoils of Fort Loudoun or possibly trade, in the case of useable metal resources.It is not unlikely, however, that these items were also obtained from the Fort Loudoun stock.
Grubbing hoes are considered to be mainly a seventeenth century style item (Noel Hume 1970: 275) and the broad hoe more characteristic of the eighteenth century.
Based on the ethnohistoric records (see Chapter 2) the major period of occupation for the town of Tomotley was during the Colonial Period, mainly 1750 to 1776.
This span of occupation was confirmed by the general lack of artifacts from the Contact, Revolutionary, and Federal periods.
Of this total, 10,643 were beads or bead fragments, and the remaining artifacts were metal, glass, bone, and fabric objects.
Some discussion will also be provided regarding the recycled and aboriginally modified artifacts identified from Tomotley.
All Euro-American artifacts recovered from the 19 archaeological excavations at Tomotley were examined.