Similarly, using a primed lexical decision task it was found that patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) had delayed responding to verbs, but not to other verbal material (Boulenger et al., 2008).
Sentences were descriptions of emotional expressions that mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., “I am smiling”) or did not (e.g., “I am frowning”).One of the reasons for this is probably to be found in the differences in experimental design and procedures (cf. These studies also differ in their focus on what comprehension constitutes (reading, listening) as well as they differ in the stimulus material.In particular, even though f MRI results furnish excellent information regarding the brain areas involved, their temporal resolution is poor.As controls, we used sentences that are associated to a different facial muscle (e.g., I am frowning).We choose this particular focus because there is reliable evidence that the affirmative verbal representation of emotional expressions activates the corresponding facial muscles (e.g., Winkielman et al., 2008; Foroni and Semin, 2009).The supportive evidence comes from behavioral (e.g., Zwaan and Taylor, 2006; Fischer and Zwaan, 2008), neurophysiological studies (e.g., Pulvermüller, 2004, 2005; Buccino et al., 2005; Pulvermüller et al., 2005a,b; Filimon et al., 2007—see Hauk et al., 2008, for a review), fine-grained movement-kinematic measures (Gentilucci and Gangitano, 1998; Glover and Dixon, 2002; Boulenger et al., 2006), and electromyographic analyses of facial muscles (e.g., Winkielman et al., 2008; Foroni and Semin, 2009, 2011).
Thus, evidence on the embodied grounding of meaning suggests that sensorimotor simulations of the content described by linguistic utterances are an essential component of language comprehension.
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Completing The 22nd WCGTC Biennial World Conference will contribute 18 hours of NESA Registered PD addressing standards 1.5.4, 3.3.4, 4.1.4 and 6.3.4 from the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers towards maintaining Lead Teacher Accreditation in NSW.
Reading sentences involving the negation of the activity of a specific muscle (zygomatic major—“I am not smiling”) is shown to lead to the inhibition of this muscle.
Reading sentences involving the affirmative form instead (“I am smiling”) leads to the activation of zygomatic mucle.
We discuss how this research contributes to the grounding of abstract and concrete concepts.