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One of the greatest expositors of Aristotle, Averroës also wrote a commentary on Plato’s and made some contributions to pure mathematics, is particularly noteworthy.

His commentaries on the works of Aristotle, which had been translated into Arabic in Spain, had great influence on Jewish and Christian thinkers, including , and Boethius of Dacia.In , a history of religions that was not surpassed by Western scholars until well into the 19th century.He also was a leading exponent of the Ẓāhirī school of jurisprudence, which stressed thorough knowledge of the Qurʾān and the Hadith.Despite their lack of interest in the physical sciences, the Andalusians excelled in both theoretical and practical astronomy.A number of these scholars sought to simplify the astrolabe, and finally by suggesting that the orbits of the planets are not circular but ovoid.As al-Manṣūr chose the foremost talents of his time to serve as “poet-journalists”—men such as Ibn Darrāj al-Qaṣtallī, al-Ramādī, Ṣāʿid of Baghdad, al-Ṭalīq, and numerous others—this occasional poetry sometimes attained literary heights.

In the 10th century (“Book of Orchards”)—the first anthology of Andalusian poets.

Arab civilization in the peninsula reached its zenith when the political power of the Arabs began to decline.

Immediately following the Muslim conquest in the 8th century, there were no traces of a cultural level higher than that attained by the who lived among the Arab conquerors.

Other petty kings in the peninsula endeavoured to compete with al-Muʿtamid, but they were unable to assemble a constellation of writers of comparable stature. To the era of greatest decadence, in the 13th century, belonged Abū al-Baqāʾ of Ronda and Ibn Saʿīd.

In the 14th century three court poets, Ibn al-Jayyāb, Ibn al-Khaṭīb, and Ibn Zamraq, preserved their verses by having them inscribed in the Alhambra.

This perhaps explains why Al-Andalus, located at the western fringe of the Muslim world, produced works that to this day are used as texts in some traditional Islamic universities.