Typology dating techniques
We are in the final stages of processing the 2015 Fort Hunter collection and have begun to inventory the artifacts.As described in our Processing the Fort Hunter Collection blog the inventory process includes, “adding a description of each artifact or group of like artifacts into the digital inventory by catalog number, and bag and box them carefully to insure their preservation for long-term curation.
Both of these characteristics are also used to narrow down a date range.A typology is a system that uses physical characteristics to place artifacts into specific classifications.In the case of a dating typology archaeologists use the physical characteristics to identify the artifact within a specific type that correlates to a specific date or range of dates.One example of this analysis method is historic ceramics which have been in production for hundreds of years, but not every type of ceramic has been in production for that entire period.Due to technological advances especially during the mid-16 centuries, pottery craftsmen were able to create more refined pastes (less porous), glazes more purified in color and new methods of decorating the pottery (from hand painted to transfer printed) as time went on.It is often these physical attributes that help identify a specific ceramic as creamware.
Once we have identified the piece as creamware we can then look at known production or manufacture dates from the typology and determine a date between 17 (Deetz 1996).
Science of classifying stone tools by form, techniques and technological traits.
Must include duplication of the technique by first observing the intentional form, then reconstructing or replicating the tool in the exact order of the aboriginal workman. Typology cannot be based on function." (Crabtree 1982, 57) Typology is used to classify i.e.
This is all done in a systematic manner so that any given artifact can be easily accessed and utilized by future researchers.” During this process we try to add as much information to the inventory as we can that may be useful to a researcher and for us in our site analysis.
This includes material types, condition or wholeness of the artifact, and date of production to name a few.
For example finding a handaxe was used to interpret the culture as Acheulian and date the find to the lower Palaeolithic.