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Aquinas avoids the difficulties and contradictions of the "two substance " theory and, saving the personality, accounts for the observed facts of the unity of consciousness.
In the earliest symbols (see the Alexandrian: di ou ta panta egeneto, ta en ouranois kai epi ges, horata te kai aorata , and the Nicene), in the councils (see especially IV Lateran, 1215; "Creator of all things visible and invisible, spiritual and corporeal, who by this omnipotent power . A masterly synthetic exposition of the theological and philosophical doctrine as to man is given in the "Summa Theologica" of St. Either mode would be philosophically tenable, but the Thomistic principle of the successive and graded evolution of forms in matter is in favour of the latter view. The commonly held opinion is that this determination takes place when the organization of the brain of the foetus is sufficiently complete to allow of imaginative life; i.e. But note also the opinion that the creation of, and information by, the soul takes place at the moment of conception.This doctrine &151; the contradiction of Traducianism and Transmigration—follows from the consideration that the formal principle cannot be produced by way of generation, either directly (since it is proved to be simple in substance ), or accidentally (since it is a subsistent form). This problem may be treated from the standpoints of Holy Scripture , theology, or philosophy.Hence there remains only creation as the mode of its production. A The Sacred Writings are entirely concerned with the relations of man to God, and of God's dealings with man, before and after the Fall.(Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , Mensch ).According to the common definition of the School, Man is a rational animal.It exists only as determined by a form; and if that form is not a human soul, then the "body" is not a human body.
It is in this sense that the Scholastic phrase "incomplete substance ", applied to body and soul alike, is to be understood. 4) and of Aristotle is not the only one that has been advanced.
This becomes a "living soul " and fashioned to the "image of God " by the inspiration of the "breath of life", which makes man man and differentiates him from the brute. C Scholastic philosophy reaches a conclusion as to the origin of man similar to the teaching of revelation and theology. All things that are, except Himself, exist in virtue of a unique creative act.
B This doctrine is obviously to be looked for in all Catholic theology. As to the mode of creation, there would seem to be two possible alternatives. 2, ad 2um), a succession of preparatory forms preceded information by the rational soul, it nevertheless follows necessarily from the established principles of Scholasticism that this, not only in the case of the first man, but of all men, must be produced in being by a special creative act.
It has been said that man's animality is distinct in nature from his rationality, though they are inseparably joined, during life, in one common personality. As such, neither has any substantial existence of its own.
To be exact we should have to write: "Man's animality is rational"; for his "rationality" is certainly not something superadded to his "animality". In the Scholastic synthesis, it is a manifest illogism to hypostasize the abstract conceptions that are necessary for the intelligent apprehension of complete phenomena.
The ecclesiastical definitions have reference merely to the "union" of "body" and " soul ". for the soul is not only really and essentially the form of the human body, but is also immortal ; and the number of souls has been and is to be multiplied according as the number of bodies is multiplied"; Brief "Eximiam tuam" of Pius IX to Cardinal de Geissel, 15 June, 1857, condemning the error of Günther, says: "the rational soul is per se the true and immediate form of the body".