Ink age dating
The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1.Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink.As the ink ages these components decrease and thus the approximate age of the writing can be determined.Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries.If additional entries are available that can be considered “known” regarding their preparation date, then comparative analysis may provide evidence to indicate the preparation date of the “questioned” writings.Not to the same degree as handwritten documents or signatures.
It is not possible to determine commercial availability of these materials with the same degree of certainty as was possible with writing ink.
Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied.
For example, if transfers of ink are found on several pages of a diary, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a longer period as suggested by the dates.
If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.
We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation.
It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of the text and signature (handwritten notation) do not intersect. * At present, the ink aging methods that analyze ink dye components are considered unreliable by the overwhelming majority of ink dating specialists and forensic document examiners.